AC/DC and DC-DC Converter : “Practice for potent power regulation”
The Power efficiency of Converter product is highly correlated to the relationship between voltage and the alternating current inside a current source. Power factor correction is really a widely discussed phenomenon and it is greatly essential in voltage regulation and power management process. An average PFC is important in many single-phase AC-DC converter circuits to reduce harmonic distortion, hence increase power use of electrical appliances. Recently there's been a massive upsurge of great interest in AC adapters and other external power supplies.
The present LED driver circuit is designed to drive in a minimum module. It consists of two stages, AC-DC power factor correction stage and DC/DC power converter stage. The implementation from the PFC stage uses IC NCP1608, which utilizes the critical conduction mode to ensure a unity input power factor having a wide range of input voltages.
There are three types of LED driver systems, Single-stage, Two-stage and integrated LED drivers. The single-stage LED driver is an AC/DC converter that provides a continuing output current for that LED and a unity power factor. The two-stage system consists of two separate stages, an AC/DC power factor correction (PFC) converter and a DC/DC converter. Recently, some integrated topologies were introduced in order to lessen the size and price. Single-stage and integrated solutions possess some advantages for example low-cost designs and high efficiency because of just one energy conversion.
Manufacturers worldwide have developed innovative production techniques that enable the combination of multiple components and a DC-DC converter IC die right into a single module. Producing this type of dc-dc module involves protection for its associated die in the surrounding environment. Additionally, it is able to integrate multiple components into the module thereby accommodating more complicated circuits and reduced heat emission.
The Buck- Boost Converters too play a significant role in LED application. An easy emitting diodes drivers is a technique through which allows compact module to supply necessary requirement mainly Omni directional indoor LED bulbs. The machine separates transmission path from existing system based on instant input voltage which makes users improve and provide better PF relative value than existing system by which fixed LED method which contains just one electrolytic capacitor. This proposed system factor provides high power conversion efficiency supply than the existing LED drivers. The benefit of buck boost converter is that small signal modelling includes higher efficiency than existing peak current mode control method. The experimental outcomes of proposed dimmable LED driver are executed and determined successfully than existing fly back system. The result of proposed system consumes 40 watt power than existing system.
The combined approach and technicalities of conversion has always catered to various aspects of the society. Daily life applications like automotive, telecommunications, power management, smart lighting and industrial machinery would be the sectors which demand day to day development in technologies. Decades of growing regulation have made efficiency testing one of the most key elements in selecting and qualifying power supplies. Some of the applications are as stated below.
Converter are also implemented in integrated circuit of wireless power devices in order to lessen the input voltage and produce small voltage drop, thus increase power use of the devices. Therefore, two techniques which commonly used are negative voltage converter with active diode and gate cross-coupled AC-DC converter with bootstrap capacitor.
Many lighting applications require LED backlight driver solutions with the following features like household power control, high quality, PWM dimming, voltage protection, and design simplicity. A fundamental consideration within the evaluation DC/DC converters may be the effect of system losses on efficiency. A good way to increase efficiency is to reduce the current flowing in the inductor by reducing the resistive losses because of the active components and the inductor.
The electronics on-board a vehicle control many functions. Power management systems cover not just lighting solutions but also infotainment methods to offer comfort and a safe and pleasant ride. For high-power applications, such as exterior lighting utilized in the automotive sector, a switching regulator is generally used. LEDs generally need a constant current to make a coherent light output.
Today's market offers DC/DC converter modules that address the growing power requirements of high-reliability networking and telecommunications infrastructure equipment. The main applications in this segment are networking and telecommunications infrastructure equipment, communications equipment, network security, routers, wireless base stations, telecommunications switches and electronics, computing equipment along with other applications requiring power conversion to an intermediate bus voltage of 11.4 V.
The DC-DC converters provide regulated DC voltage when only DC can be obtained. This will enable conversion to various voltage levels, along with electrical isolation to assist setup independent power systems. With respect to the model, DC-DC converters can be found in enclosures or open-frame with wattages from 3W. These converters are DIN rail mountable or may be modifiable for DIN rail applications. The converters offers features for example high quality, overload protection, durable design and transient suppression.
Energy conversion is clearly oriented on multi-point conversion that is with different parallel hollywood bus. The latest researches on energy conversion show the next generation systems is going to be both smarter and efficient, with insurance of greater security and modularity.
Industrial eminence and contemporary products within the market
AC/DC Converters and DC-DC Converters are used in various application as it is regarded as the core aspect of any electronic system. The applications where it's used includes medical equipment, factory automation, building automation, process control systems, signage displays, telecommunication, alternative energy, test and measuring equipment, defence, aerospace and transportation system etc.
Every aspect of confined and complicated electronics nowadays require technology in power management, regulators and current conversion techniques. Several from the latest products in the areas of AC/DC and DC-DC conversion.
RECOM RS12-Z series DC/DC Converters
The RS12 is an advanced DC/DC converter that utilizes planar transformer technology to offer a high power density, 4:1 input voltage, regulated DC output with 3kVDC isolation along with a wide operating temperature range of -40°C to +75°C. The SIP8 pin out is backward compatible with RS6 and RS3 offering the option of 3W, 6W or 12W of output power within the same sized package. The series includes a metal casing providing EMI shielding as well as enhanced thermal performance with case tabs providing mechanical stability and additional heat sinking towards the customer's PCB.
Vicor DC-DC Converter Module
The DCM Chip is definitely an isolated and regulated DC-DC converter. It consistently deliver high efficiency across their specified input line range. Modular DCM converters used independently or with downstream point of load products support efficient power distribution, providing superior power system performance and connectivity from the number of unregulated power sources to begin load. The DCM module provides a higher-level of functionality with integrated EMI filtering, tight output voltage regulation along with a secondary referenced control interface.
Cincon SIP-7 Unregulated DC-DC Converter
The EC2SANH series offer 2 watts of output power with Industry Standard Package inside a 0.77 x 0.28 x 0.40inches. The EC2SANH series have a ±10% input voltage range of 5Vdc, 12Vdc and 24Vdc and provide an unregulated output. This series are with features as miniature size, 3000VDC of isolation and allow an operating ambient temperature selection of -40°C to 105°C with de-rating above 85℃. All purchases are extremely suitable for telecommunications, distributed power systems, battery operated equipment, industrial, portable equipment applications.
RECOM RPHM-0.5 non-isolated DC/DC Switching Regulator
RECOM extends its RPM series with the launch from the RPMH-0.5, A 0.5A non-isolated DC/DC switching regulator in a low-profile DOSA-compatible LGA package. With 0.5A output, five trimmable fixed outputs are available: 3.3V, 5V, 12V, 15V or 24V. Input voltage range is 1V-1.5V over the set output up to 65V, making the parts suitable for systems operating on nominal 5, 12, 24 or 48V rails. The RPMH also features 6-sided shielding for low radiated EMI so class B EMI compliance is achieved with a simple low cost line inductor. Additional features include full protection together with power sequencing, soft start on/off control remote sensing and a power good signal.
Vicor AC input filter and Rectifier
The MI-AIM AC input module interfaces directly with AC mains to supply line rectification, EMI filtering, transient protection and inrush limiting. These front-end modules accept 115VAC and supply 250W of output power for the Vicor Mi-x7x family of full-brick and half-brick sized modules. The MI-AIM meets CE102 conducted emissions requirements of MIL-STD-461D/E, the transient and spike requirements of MIL-STD-704A and the environmental test requirements of MIL-STD-810.
TDK Corporation i6A step down Converters
Ideal for creating additional high current output voltages from a single output 12V, 24V or 48V AC-DC power supply, the highly efficient I6A series of step-down converters include the basic I6A supplying up to 14A, the wide input range i6A4W supplying as much as 20A, and the i6AN allowing the creation of negative voltages delivering currents up to 8A. The I6A series are suitable for use in medical, communications, industrial, make sure measurement, broadcast and portable equipment.
Mornsun AC/DC Converter for Automotive application
CLS03_15A12SR2S is among Mornsun's high efficient green power AC-DC Converter
series. It features ultra-compact size (35.0*13.0*21.0mm), ultra-wide input range accepting either AC or DC voltage, high reliability, low power consumption or reinforced isolation. Production process according to automotive standard IATF16949 system. It is suitable for automotive charging related equipment, for example portable on-board charger for electric vehicle, charging box, charging pile and so on. The Production process according to IATF16949 system control, applied to automotive industry that also has universal input voltage of 85 – 264VAC/100 – 370VDC and an operating ambient temperature of -40℃ to +85℃.
STMicroelectronics VIPER222 High Voltage Converters
The VIPER222 Converters embed the high voltage startup and also the current sense circuit, avoiding the use of extra components within the BoM. Frequency jittering spreads the EMI and allows the utilization of a small filter. The burst mode technique allows a really low input power consumption at light load. The convertor includes a 730V avalanche rugged power MOSFET along with a PWM controller. It caters to the applications for example auxiliary SMPS for home appliance, consumer, industrial and lighting applications.
AC/DC Converters are widely used in lots of power electronic apparatuses. The designed AC/DC Converter provides high Power Factor, using less number of components and therefore is economical compared to the traditional power electronic converters. Within the industries where DC motors with less power rating are used, the Power Factor ought to be high which may be achieved by using the proposed converter circuit. Therefore, the proposed circuit acts as a power factor corrector to be able to obtain high Power Factor. It's also evident the future requires more sustainable and fast technologies to get a source of robust power management.
By: Mannu Mathew | Sub Editor | ELE Times